Every bullet, blanket, bandage, artillery battery or tin of bully beef had to be manufactured and transported where and when it was required. While road, rail and river transport were used where feasible, due to the harsh and remote terrain supply lines relied heavily on African porters. The quayside at Boulogne, one of the principal ports for cross-channel traffic supporting British forces. Germany's 'Schlieffen Plan' provided for concentrating forces by rail rapidly along both the eastern and western boundaries. Americans were outraged and joined the war in 1917 on the … It would be the last time the horse would be used on a mass scale in modern warfare. By the end of the war over 5 million tonnes of coal had been carried on 'Jellicoe Specials', but the congestion caused was a factor in Britain's worst ever rail disaster at Quintinshill in May 1915 where 227 people died. A huge construction and maintenance programme to improve communications was undertaken, including large numbers of civilian labourers and prisoners of war. Two technologies that were crucial in shaping the First World War were railways and artillery. It also shows the harsh winter conditions and difficult terrain. One of these arose when the supply of steam coal from the Welsh mines for the Grand Fleet based at Scapa Flow was threatened by submarine attacks on coastal shipping. or Best Offer. Railways provided the enormous logistical capacity needed to support huge armies in the field for years on end, including transportation of millions of artillery shells. Invented in France in 1860, barbed wire was further developed in the United States, where it was used to restrict cattle and secure territory. Poison gas was used by both sides with devastating results (well, sometimes) during the Great War. Initial Turkish attempts in 1915 to invade Egypt from Palestine and cut the canal were repulsed. The German advance ground to a halt. They consisted of three different sections, the front line, the support trenches and the reserve trenches. The motor vehicle manufacturing industry increased production but it was a slow process because the industry was generally small and fragmented. The initials ROD stand for the Railway Operating Division of the Royal Engineers who were responsible for the operation of military trains. Other elements of WW1 kit including rifles and puttees are shown in more detail. World War II was a global war that was under way by 1939 and ended in 1945. Road transport also experienced huge impacts from the war, starting with the sudden disappearance of requisitioned buses, lorries and horses. A long-drawn-out campaign was fought against German colonial forces in east Africa, who increasingly lived off the land and used guerrilla tactics against British forces that were mainly recruited locally and in India. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Control of the Tigris River was crucial for ensuring that shallow-draughted river boats could supply the mainly Indian forces pushing northwards from Basra on the Persian Gulf. Click & Collect. Dan Snow is speed dressed with a 1914 British Infantryman’s kit as used at the Western Front. Trench warfare has become synonymous with World War I, when it was heavily used on the Western Front from 1914 to 1918. It was only in 1918 that these supply problems were sufficiently overcome to allow offensives to be sustained. Fighting a campaign north of Salonika, initially to support Serbia, presented many challenges that were different to the Western Front. Sinking of the Lusitania When the Germans sank the Lusitania in 1915, a passenger ocean liner with 159 Americans on board, the public opinion in the United States toward the war began to change. It was expected that the Russian Army would be slow to mobilise, so the strategy was to sweep rapidly through Belgium and Luxembourg, invade northern France and encircle around the north and west of Paris. These were only a temporary stopgap - although some vehicles such as London buses remained in service throughout the war - and thousands more vehicles were ordered from manufacturers in Britain and increasingly the USA. The rapidly advancing German troops far outran their supply lines once they entered France. At the turn of the twentieth century railways dominated land transport. Huge investments were made to improve the logistical support for operations, and by 1918 these had reached levels of sophistication that were ultimately capable of supporting the offensives that brought the war to a close. Supplies from Britain were routed through the port of Cherbourg and trains then ran across France and Italy to Taranto where ships carried them across the Aegean to the small port of Itea. An ideal German World War I infantry division was composed of about 18,000 men and around 4500 horses or mules. This line had been built shortly before the war from Damascus over 800 miles southwards to Medina, largely to strengthen Ottoman control of the region. Women took on many new roles in railway service previously restricted to men. Various items of uniform and equipment are labelled along with occasional notes about their use. Food supplies in the trenches were adequate until late 1915, after which shortages and interruptions to shipments created problems. £560.00. Because of the nature of the ammunition supplies passing through Newhaven, the dock was under the control of the military. There are a total of [ 14 ] WW1 Australian Infantry Weapons (1914-1918) entries in the Military Factory. Fresh meat was in short supply so most soldiers relied on ‘bully beef’ (canned corned beef). A supply column carrying ammunition for the 2nd/4th Battalion, King's African Rifles is seen crossing the Lurio River during operations in Portuguese East Africa. Flamethrowers used in WW1 were invented by the Germans. At the end of offensive and counter-offensive the lines generally stabilised close to where they had begun. £14.20 postage. Kitchen staff became more and more dependent on local vegetables and als… Nowhere was the planning more developed than in Germany and France. As the troops advanced, supplies and reinforcements had to be brought forward across the shattered landscape of the battlefield where roads and railways had been obliterated. In ancient times, Gaelic-Irish sources wrote that warriors in the battle of Clontarf used moss to pack their wounds. The Salonika campaign also relied heavily on lengthy supply lines by sea from Britain and France. A single road, to Seres, supplied virtually half the British front, and collapsed rapidly under the traffic. Impact on the War The submarines used in WW1 did not only affect the soldiers fighting (while stile sinking vessels with soldiers and supplies on them), submarines also had impacts on civilians too.During the war the German U-boats sunk about 5,000 ships. Over 1,000 civilian lorries and over 300 buses were requisitioned at the outbreak of hostilities and were hurriedly moved across the Channel. From machine guns to different types of gases, each was used for a specific reason and required great technique to use. The French and Germans had a ready solution for the first part of this journey because they had recognised before the war that there would be an important role for 60cm gauge light railway systems. Getting close to the front was the relatively easy part of the process. The Turkish forces also relied heavily on shipping across the Sea of Marmara to supply their forces. These unusual vehicles played an important role in the D-Day landings, the Battle of Normandy and the campaign in north-west Europe. It was able to expand its pre-war bus production lines and they alone produced over 10,000 lorries during the war. World War I was a global conflict that took place between 1914 and 1918. British forces therefore occupied the oilfields near Basra in late 1914. Could be used to show children the different parts of a soldier’s kit in WW1. Anywhere beyond this point was potentially within range of the devastating effects of long distance artillery shelling. The increasingly exhausted German troops were short of food and ammunition, and also faced stiffening resistance as the French used their well-developed rail network around Paris to assemble a new army to protect the capital. They were wrong. While the Bulgarians were forced to abandon this part of the front, a daring mounted force pushed northwards to Skopje and also cut the supply routes to the western part of the front, precipitating the end of the war in this theatre. While WWI was fought in the trenches and used machine guns and poisonous gas, WWII was fought using modern artillery and machines utilizing more airplanes, ships, tanks, and submarines. Artillery bombardments. By 1918 each Division of about 12,000 men needed about 1,000 tons of supplies every day - equivalent to two supply trains each of 50 wagons. Only then could artillery and infantry be moved forward with adequate supplies. The inadequacy of motor transport was cruelly exposed during the Somme campaign from July 1916 onwards. At the start of the war, there was a fear of food shortages but the real shortages didn’t hit home until 1915, these initial prices and shortages were a knee jerk reaction to the announcement that Britain was at war. Read about our approach to external linking. Newly employed Chinese Labourers were used at Newhaven Harbour after 1917. War material had to be railed to a Channel port and, until special ferries were built to carry wagons, loaded onto a ferry, reloaded onto a French train or barges and carried forward to the main supply dumps behind the British lines. When Turkey entered the war on the side of the Central Powers, its declining Ottoman Empire still extended through Palestine and southwards along the eastern shores of the Red Sea, including much of modern day Iraq and reaching the Persian Gulf. The British, however, planned for a more mobile war and had decided to rely primarily on motor transport. The next problem was how to bridge the gap between the supply dumps and the soldiers who needed the supplies - and the problems got more and more difficult the closer supplies were moved towards the front lines. Various items of uniform and equipment are labelled along with occasional notes about their use. However, there was still a major role for animals in distributing supplies, with the Egyptian Camel Transport Corps having a crucial function. Motor vehicles had yet to seriously threaten the railways, except for local traffic, while aviation was at an embryonic stage. The overturned engine, ROD 1859, is one of 311 freight locomotives of a standard design that were shipped to France and Belgium from 1917. A decision was then made to push up-river towards Baghdad, but this ill-fated expedition was supported by thinly stretched supply lines using river steamers and was cut off, surrounded and ultimately defeated at Kut-al-Amara. The main food was now a pea-soup with a few lumps of horsemeat. Death can take up to 5 weeks. It was fired into the trenches in shells. For both sides submarine warfare and mines posed a serious threat to supply lines. They also developed the capacity to support the concentration of forces and supplies sufficient to unleash a blow that could shatter the opposing lines. A surprise French and Serbian attack broke through the Bulgarian lines high in the mountains and pushed on to the Vardar River valley, severing the main railway line supplying the central and eastern half of the Bulgarian front. The final link to the front line troops was normally carried out by ration parties under the cover of darkness. Original German Cavalry Uhlan Schulterreimen Y-straps, 1916 or 1918 - Near Mint! As the submarine threat grew, an alternative, largely overland route was developed. Lorries unloading a supply train at railhead to deliver to a forward refilling point. The combination of heavy rainfall, inadequately built roads and the pounding caused by large numbers of heavy lorries on narrow, solid-rubber tyres caused the supply lines literally to bog down in the mud. Veterinarians use primarily medical equipment (stethoscope, needles and syringes, anesthetic machines, etc.). Thousands of Ottoman soldiers were deployed to defend the railway from the increasingly effective sabotage. These were like model train sets with light, narrow gauge sections of railway line that could be easily laid on the ground and relocated when they were needed elsewhere. The problems really began about 7 miles behind the front. WW1 Weapons: Zeppelin The U.S. actually saved Britain and some other Allied powers from bankruptcy by joining the war. In the meantime, a heavy reliance had to be placed on far less efficient horse-drawn transport. On the home front the possible impacts of a European war had been foreseen long before 1914, and plans to put the British railways on a war footing had been prepared. However, they found to their consternation that the main British railway manufacturers already had a huge backlog of French orders. But even this revealed a further problem. The owners had been encouraged by a financial subsidy to purchase vehicles that met a War Department specification, a condition of which was that the vehicles could be requisitioned. So crucial was transportation that in the last months of the war, despite a shortage of front line soldiers, men with railway experience were being transferred from infantry units to railway operating companies. With the end of hostilities the networks and equipment took on new roles, initially in supporting reconstruction of the devastated areas. World War One However, the terrain near the front was often impassable for wheeled vehicles and so pack animals were used extensively. Q 5855. The main reason why WW1 started was Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s assassination on June 28, 1914. Although the railways were heavily focussed on traffic to and from the Channel ports, they also had to respond to many other demands. At the same time British industry, including major railway workshops, had been reorganised to massively increase the production of armaments. It is estimated that over 1 million Africans were recruited or conscripted as carriers by the belligerents and they, together with the civilian population, suffered most of the casualties. By 1918 the labour force included more than 16,000 Greek men, 3,700 Greek women and 4,500 Turkish POWs. What were air raids like during World War One? videos. For the British the challenge was complicated by the English Channel. Despite the best efforts, it took time to build new lines of communication. Similarly, by February 1918, 100 women were employed to work the docks. Within a month this number had risen to over 400. A fleet of lorries provided the next link across the rugged mountains of central Greece to Bralo, where the final stage was completed by standard gauge rail to Salonika. Just as the demand for transport increased, many able-bodied men volunteered for military service. Maintaining these huge forces in the field - up to 2 million men were serving on the Western Front - required vast amounts of supplies. Download A WW1 Soldier’s Equipment. Coal suddenly had to be railed over 700 miles up to the northern tip of Scotland, largely along a single track route that had never been designed for heavy freight traffic. Baghdad fell on 11 March 1917. £500.00. Ultimately the momentum of the advances from August onwards that precipitated the end of the war was able to be supported adequately. Following a French surrender, expected within six weeks, the forces could then face the Russians. By the final months of the war, as General Allenby advanced towards Damascus, more Ottoman soldiers were strung out in strongpoints along the Hedjaz railway than were trying unsuccessfully to stem his advance. The British artillery was to fire nearly 28 million shells during the Somme battles, but increasingly the 20,000 tonnes of supplies required daily to support an offensive on a front of about 12 miles could not be distributed adequately. 67, dated July 26, 1943, has been revised and brought up to date to include instructions in the use of drugs and medicines. The Germans pioneered the large-scale use of chemical weapons with a … More than 65 million men from 30 countries battled in the WW1. Subject: Stores And Equipment: Standard List Of Medical Supplies The Minimum Standard List of Drugs, Chemicals and Surgical Supplies which was issued with Operations Regulation No. But humans have also used it for at least 1,000 years to help heal their injuries. This distance was too long to be bridged effectively with horse-drawn vehicles, because horses could not manage a daily round trip of this length. Horse-drawn transport was very widely used close to the front, especially over rough ground. On 5 August 1914, the government took over the railways and vested control in a Railway Executive Committee, which included the managers of the biggest railway companies. Previously, Britain and its allies used to buy supplies from the U.S. amounting to over 75 billion dollar per week. In the event, strong Belgian resistance, including extensive demolition of railway infrastructure, delayed the advance and the use of the network to supply German forces. Well, at the simplest, it's the weight of the food for man and beast and the ammunition used in a single day. The adequacy of transport and supply networks played a major role in shaping strategies for operations throughout the First World War and in influencing their success or failure. Free. It was a thin and watery broth containing sliced turnips and carrots, Maconochie was endured by famished soldiers, and detested by all. Belgian Army engineers destroying a road and railway bridge in Termonde to hold up the German advance before retreating to Antwerp on 18 September 1914. The rifle was a common weapon used by the British. 0 bids. Here five women are cleaning a locomotive. > A WW1 Soldier’s Equipment. Following the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941, which led to the United States actively supporting the Allied war effort. Often the final leg had to be carried out by the soldiers themselves carrying the food, water and other supplies to the front lines. The military used horses mainly for logistical support; they were better than mechanized vehicles at traveling through deep mud and over rough terrain. Q 9340. Camels were used extensively in the campaigns in Sinai and Palestine. WW1 Weapons and Supplies During World War 1 a variety of weapons and supplies were used. The United States did not participate in the war until April 6, 1917, almost three years after it broke out. All They quickly established networks that led from the main supply dumps to the artillery batteries and then further forward to smaller supply dumps and refilling points from which the front lines could be served. By early 1917 these increasingly complex transportation networks - supported by a specially created Labour Corps which included tens of thousands of men recruited from China, Egypt, India and other Empire countries - were capable of supporting defensive lines almost indefinitely. This became much more pressing from 1916, when large amounts of equipment were transported across the Channel in response to appeals from the French authorities to meet chronic shortages. Two 'Insect' class Royal Navy gunboats at Baghdad. This act killed 1,198 innocent passengers. The engine at the head of the train is one of 100 2-6-2T American ALCO steam engines built in 1917, while beyond it is a recently delivered British 40hp Simplex petrol engined tractor. Fighting afflicted Africa throughout most of the war. A bombardment that was aimed well could destroy enemy trenches, and knock out artillery batteries (groups of guns) and communication lines. This October 1917 scene shows wounded being conveyed over the Judaean Hills to the Casualty Clearing Station in covered-in stretchers (cacolets) on the backs of camels. Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. In early 1943, the 79th Armoured Division under the command of Major-General Sir Percy Hobart was given responsibility for developing equipment and tactics to perform specialised tasks in support of ground troops on and after D-Day. In WW1 trench warfare was used greatly, the soldiers would dig trenches into the ground so that they were able to avoid enemy fire. Discover their stories now. During the First World War, the Allies and the Central Powers employed modern weaponry and firepower on an unprecedented scale. One of the best-prepared companies was AEC, a subsidiary of the companies operating much of London's bus, tram and underground services. Egypt, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, was under British control to protect the Suez Canal, which provided a vital link to its Empire in India, Asia and much of Africa. Flag images indicative of country of origin and not necessarily the primary operator. Consequently the main belligerent nations of Europe built their plans for mobilising and supporting their armies in war primarily around railways. Motor transport had matured and thousands of War Department lorries were purchased by ex-servicemen and offered increasingly effective competition. To support a 250-mile-long front, largely through remote mountainous terrain or along mosquito-infested river valleys, there were only a couple of existing railways and virtually no metalled roads. In the following months the main supply links to France through the channel ports were reinforced with judicious enhancements to the network. Defending the docks. Although many other manufacturers increased their output, the large number of different lorry designs remained a major problem, especially complicating maintenance and repairs. These include helmets, leather jerkins, goatskin garments and webbing. Here shells are being unloaded at Brielen, just north of Ypres, on 3 August 1917. Lists of pages with links in sections on propaganda, call-up, maintaining supplies, air raids, wounded soldiers, victory; personal recollections and research World War One on … Railways were the only way of shifting this volume of material overland and a very sophisticated transportation and supply system was developed, especially after a major reorganisation in 1916. But it was a close-run thing, with the Fourth Army operating 50 miles ahead of the only reliable railhead when the Armistice came into force. Oil was vital to Britain for fuelling its most powerful warships, as well as for motor transport. A light railway lies in ruins on the right. It seems the main cause of early food shortage was that farmers, suppliers and shop keepers were holding back stock; maybe they believed that they would need their produce past Christmas 1914 or they were just takin… The following is a list of equipment of the United States during World War II which includes artillery, vehicles and vessels. In this case, shell-carrying pack mules are moving forward through the mud near Ypres on 1 August 1917 to support the Battle of Pilckem Ridge. WW1: Maintaining supplies. While the Western Front was relatively close to the major manufacturing centres of Europe, and was supported by extensive road and rail networks, the situation was very different on other fronts. This theme - of the momentum of an initially successful advance faltering as supply lines were outrun, while defending forces were rapidly concentrated to fill the breech - was to be replayed many times during the next four years. Artillery (heavy guns) played a big part in the battlefields of World War I. The British took increasing responsibility for operating the standard gauge railways supporting their forces. German reservists are serenaded by a military band as their train departs from Berlin in a scene that was repeated all over Europe from August 1914. 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